African American Research Collaborative

Revealing Disparities Methodology

In partnership with the Commonwealth Fund, the African American Research Collaborative (AARC) conducted both qualitative and quantitative research. In November and December of 2022, AARC completed six focus groups with a total of 41 participants. The six groups were comprised of the following participants: community health clinic employees (n=8); hospital employees (n=8); Black health care workers (n=6); Latino health care workers (n=6); immigrant health care workers (n=6); and white health care workers (n=7). Participants in the race-, ethnicity-, and immigrant-specific focus groups were employed at the time in various health care workplaces, including private medical offices, outpatient facilities, hospitals, clinics, and dental offices. The hospital employees and community health clinic groups were racially and ethnically diverse. Participants were employed as nurses, administrators, mental health providers, medical technicians, pharmacists, primary care doctors, and specialist doctors. While there was not an Asian American–specific focus group, a total of six Asian Americans participated in the focus groups.


Topics explored in the focus groups included:


  • participants’ experiences with discrimination in health care settings;
  • impacts of racism and discrimination on patient outcomes;
  • whether existing systems may create disparate outcomes for patients of color;
  • impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care provision;
  • patient trust for health care institutions; and,
  • policies and procedures to mitigate discrimination in health care settings.


From March 14 to April 5, 2023, AARC fielded a survey of 3,000 health care workers. The survey oversampled Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) health care workers (n=450), Black health care workers (n=549), and Latino health care workers (n=550). It also included a robust white health care workers sample (n=1,266). The remaining health care workers (n=185) identified as in another racial/ethnic group or did not identify their race or ethnicity. The blended phone and online survey has a margin of error of +/− 1.8 percent for the full sample. The margins of error for the Black and Latino samples are +/− 4.2 percent, for the AAPI sample is +/− 4.6 percent, and for the white sample is +/− 2.8 percent. Poststratification weights were implemented using a raking algorithm to balance the sample to the 2021 Census Bureau American Community Survey estimates for gender, education, age, and race for health care workers.


An external advisory panel comprised of experts and researchers from academic institutions, health care providers, and health care worker associations shared recommendations for the design of both the qualitative and quantitative research.